"Of Course"

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One problem any teacher encounters is how to present material that many in the class will be familiar with but others will not. It's one thing to refer back to earlier material in the course, which students should but often won't remember by the time you get back to it when you encounter the same issue from a different point of view. But other background information might not have been covered earlier in the class. When I teach 300-level ethics classes, all my students should have taken the two-semester historical introduction to philosophy classes. But so many people teach those and do them so differently that there isn't any content that I can assume they've covered. It's also taught in such different styles that there isn't any basic philosophical framework that I can assume every member of the class has had.

The same problem arises in preaching. Some people hearing a sermon might know the Bible wel enough that you can refer to the sin of Achan or David's conflict with Absalom without any further information, and they'll know what you're talking about. You can mention a particular, relatively well-known chapter or section such as Romans 8, the Sermon on the Mount, or Ezeiel's vision of the temple, and some people will need no further information to be reminded of the full sense of what occurs in the section in question. At the other end of the spectrum are the biblically-illiterate who don't know that Jesus was betrayed by Judas Iscariot, aren't familiar with the biblical concept of a covenant, and would hear the expression "whore of Babylon" and think there must be some biblical character who was a prostitute in Baghdad.

One solution I've seen is to give the hearers the benefit of the doubt. I'll sometimes hear a preacher saying "of course" as an unconscious transitional marker in the middle of explaining something that only some of the people present will probably get without the explanation. It serves to signal to those who don't need the explanation that the preacher isn't treating them as if they don't already know this. The problem is that it makes those who don't know this feel sub-par for not knowing this thing that the preacher says "of course" about, as if anyone should know this. Another way of putting it would be to say, "as you know" before saying something that some people in the room do not have any knowledge of at all.

I find myself cringing inwardly at this kind of language. There's a sense of not treating those who are less-informed as important when you treat them as if the basic common denominator is higher in understanding than they are. There are certainly ways of being dismissive of someone that are worse than this, but there is a kind of insult behind this kind of language, even if it's not intended. Little things like this can have an effect on people, and this is such an unconscious habit that someone can get into when developing public speaking skills that it's easy not to think about what you're actually saying when you say this kind of thing.

In writing philosophical essays for a popular audience, I've had to think very hard about how someone with no philosophy background is going to read something I say. I hear my philosophical colleagues talking to their students with vocabulary and concepts that I can't imagine most undergraduate students understanding. Spending time in places where English isn't the native language and having to have serious conversations about Christianity and philosophy via a translator has certainly influenced my abilities to try to explain things more simply than I would if talking to a graduate student in philosophy.

So I'm at least sensitive to the fact that this is a problem, and I do know a fair number of places where it could arise that I tend to avoid it. But that isn't a solution to the problem, since it doesn't mean it won't occur where I'm not going to notice it, since I won't know sometimes that the terms I'm using have no meaning to the person I'm talking to. It also doesn't solve the problem of how to avoid giving those who do understand more the sense that they're being treated like children. But I do think this is something worth thinking through that I doubt very many people spend much time thinking about.


i can relate to both the scenarios - philosophy class and preaching - and i can only assume that you do a great job of it in your classes by the way you write. clarity and economy is everything in explanation and you do this really well on your blog.
in terms of what to assume, i'd say with sermons it is safer to assume less rather than more of a congregation. i also think a lengthier introduction in sermons can be really helpful to give people the context they will need to follow what is being said, but whenever my introduction is lengthier, i am criticised for this in my preaching.
certainly, it is the ESL situation that gets you thinking. i would be interested in readers' thoughts as to what they have concluded with regard to ESL settings. i have drawn my own conclusion after living in a locality where ESL prevails, but once you draw conclusions it can be more difficult to continue to critically evaluate the issue.

i find myself having to do this a lot in my current job, but i'm fairly conscious of using phrases like 'of course' or 'as you may know,' saving them for times when the people swear they know something, but really don't know what the devil they talkin about. well, those are my favorite times to do it, but i also do it to as a verbal indication that everything i'm telling them presupposes that they are in constant communication with their own doctor. But I say that outright, too.

I take a lot for granted. Didn't even realize I was doing it until you said this in a post and I started playing one of my sermons.

I appreciate your thoughtfulness, Jeremy. It's a good example for less capable thinkers and bloggers like myself.

At my church, we've actually spent a good amount of time talking about this. We want visitors to feel comfortable, and so we don't want them to think that we're trying to talk over their heads. The pastors, therefore, work very hard at developing the background into a sermon.

How important is it, for example, to refer to this other similar story? Is it important enough to explain, or would it be preferable to find something else? That's more or less the way we do it.

Great thoughts, though ... I know that I've been in places where I felt unwelcome because I didn't already know the code words and such ... my visits to Catholic churches stand out as particularly traumatic.

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